What is the difference in sound quality between dynamic earphone, moving iron earphone, and electrostatic headphones (earbuds)?


Hearing characteristics:

Electrostatic earphones are relatively transparent, with strong overtones (a sense of air), but they lack a sense of low volume.Compared with dynamic earplugs, moving iron earplugs generally have better density and dynamics.

Advantages and disadvantages:

The electrostatic transient response is extremely fast, the analysis power, positioning, sound quality, high frequency extension are good, and the momentum is weak.Moving iron earplugs have good analytical power, positioning and momentum, full mid-frequency, but insufficient extension at both ends.

The dynamic coil earphone has neither a unique sense of hearing nor obvious advantages.A good dynamic coil is good in all aspects, and the victory lies in balance.Bad dynamics, mediocre in all aspects.

Dynamic headphones

The basic principle comes from the left-hand law. Moving coil earphones are currently the most common type, which can be seen in large-scale headphones or delicate in-ear earphones. The electro-acoustic conversion principle of moving coil earphones is similar to that of a conventional speaker system. The diaphragm is structurally connected to a cylindrical coil in a permanent magnetic field, and the coil drives the diaphragm to sound under the drive of a signal current. For moving coil earphones, the edge of the diaphragm is directly fixed on the frame of the drive unit, and the source of vibration is completely provided by the expansion and contraction of the material of the diaphragm. The magnetic flux of the driving magnet, the material and the shape of the diaphragm are designed for sound performance Play a key role.

Moving iron headset

Moving iron earphones (also known as balanced armature earphones), which only appear in in-ear earphones, are a quite unique type of earphones. The electromagnetic field changes mainly caused by electromagnets and drives the iron sheet around the center of the electromagnet. Vibrate and make a sound. In general, the iron sheet is often in the center of the magnetic field, and no magnetic field force acts on it. Due to the particularity of this structure, only a slight electrical signal can cause the moving iron unit to emit sound. Therefore, moving iron earphones have very good resolution, but due to technical limitations, they are only used in small in-ear earphones. The high-end customized version of the moving iron headset often uses a multi-unit structure with a passive crossover.

Electrostatic headphones

Compared with mainstream moving coil earphones, electrostatic earphones belong to a relatively niche category. They are mainly polarized by a high DC voltage through the diaphragm and are in an electrostatic field formed by two fixed metal plates. Drive the diaphragm to sound. Since electrostatic headphones need to convert audio signals into voltage signals of hundreds of volts, they must be driven by special amplifiers. The diaphragm of electrostatic earphones is very light and thin, and the weight is only about 1/10 of the diaphragm of dynamic earphones, which can bring faster, better transient response and more delicate sound, plus the diaphragm is fixed in parallel Between the fixed plates, the electric field received is completely uniform, which can realize linear drive without causing division problems, and the three-frequency balance is high.

Speaking of the sound characteristics of various units, the dynamic earphones have a natural sense of hearing, a wide sound field, a natural transition of three-frequency convergence, a warm sound line, a high quality and a strong sense of atmosphere at low frequencies. It is usually based on the popular tuning of low and medium frequencies. However, the treble at high frequency vibration is prone to cracking.

Moving iron earphones are easy to drive, with extremely high resolution, high sound density, clear details and rich layers. The female voice and high frequency are transparent and bright, and they are usually tuned by female high-frequency instruments. However, due to the use of a metal diaphragm, the low-frequency volume and flexibility are not good.

Nowadays, many manufacturers have produced multi-turn iron earphones, which is to integrate multiple moving coils and moving iron units into the same earphone cavity. Through excellent tuning technology, let them be responsible for their respective sound frequency bands. Realize the combination of the advantages of the two, combine the characteristics of the moving coil and the moving iron, and bring a better music experience.

The electrostatic earphones have excellent resolution and high frequency transparency, and because of the small quality of the diaphragm itself, its transient performance is also very good.